The internalization of motivation in second/foreign language (L2) learning and the use of mock conferences (MCs) to prepare Translating and Interpreting learners for future professional careers have been widely researched by scholars, butÂ whether mock conference can facilitate the internalization of T&I learnersâ€™Â motivationÂ are under-researched. Based on Self Determination Theory (SDT), this thesis investigates the effectiveness of MC in facilitating internalization of motivation through an empirical studyÂ whichÂ involves a two-week long pedagogical experiment on two parallel classes of T&I learners taught by the same teacher in their first year of graduate study at Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation, Beijing Foreign Studies University. The research showsÂ that compared with traditional teacher-centered teaching model, MCsÂ can better facilitate internalization of T&I learnersâ€™ motivation.Â This article justifies the use of MCs as a situated approach in interpreting teaching and describes the design of MCsÂ according to the psychological needs of Self Determination Theory (SDT). In addition, the paperÂ offers suggestions for further improvement of mock conferenceâ€™s design at postgraduate level.
Key words: second/foreign language (L2) acquisition; mock conference; self-determination; internalization ofÂ motivation
Corder, S.P. Introducing Applied Linguistics; Penguin Books Ltd.:Harmondsworth, Middlesex,England, 1973.
Chambers, G. N. Pupilsâ€™ perceptions of the foreign language learning experience. Language Learning Research 1998, 2, 231-259.
Falout, J., & Maruyama, M. A comparative study of proficiency and learner demotivation. The Language Teacher 2004, 28, 3-9.
Gorham, J., & Millette, D. M. A comparative analysis of teacher and student perceptions of sources of motivation and demotivation in college classes. Communication Education 1997, 46, 245-261.
Herbert, J. How Conference Interpretation Grew. In Language Interpretation and Communication; D. Gerver and H. Sinaiko (eds.); Plenum:New York, USA,1978; pp. 5-10.
Arjona, E. Intercultural Communication and the Training of Interpreters at the Monterey Institute of Foreign Studies. In Language Interpretation and Communication; D. Gerver and H. Sinaiko (eds.); Plenum:New York, USA, 1978;pp. 35-44.
Longley, P. (An Integrated Programme for Training Interpreters. In Language Interpretation and Communication; D. Gerver and H. Sinaiko (eds.); Plenum:New York, USA, 1978; pp. 45-56.
Shlesinger, M. and Franz PÃ¶chhacker. Aptitude for Interpreting. Interpreting 2011, 13, 1-4.
Moser-Mercer, B. Simultaneous Interpreting: Cognitive Potential and Limitations. Interpreting 2001, 5, 83-94.
Moser-Mercer, B. The Acquisition of Interpreting Skills. 2000, 57-61. Available online:
https://www.openstarts.units.it/bitstream/10077/7773/1/Moser-Mercer_LIS.pdf (accessed on 12 December 2018)
Bransford, J., A. Brown and R. Cocking (eds.). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School; National Academy: Washington, USA,2000; pp. 132-133.
Kiraly, Donald.Towars a constructivist approach to translator education. Quaderns: Revista de traducciÃ³ 2001, 6, 50-53.
Angelelli, C. V. Revisiting the Interpreterâ€™s Role;John Benjamins:Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2004; pp. 12-13.
Herman, A. Interpreting in Antiquity. Translated by Ruth Morris. In The Interpreting Studies Reader. Franz Pochhacker and Miriam Shlesinger, eds; Routledge: London,U.K.,1956/2002; pp. 15-22.
Hatim, B., and I. Mason. The Translator as Communicator; London: Routledge,U.K., 1997; pp. 42-43.
Ardito, G. The Systematic Use of Impromptu Speech in Training Interpreting Students. Interpretersâ€™ Newsletter 1999, 9, 177â€“189.
De Laet, F. Mock Conference: A Challenge for Trainer and Trainee. In Teaching and Testing Interpreting and Translating; edited by V. Pellatt, K. Griffiths, and S. Wu; Peter Lang.: Berlin, Germany, 2010; pp. 251â€“260.
Kurz,I. Interpreting Training Programmes. In Teaching Translation and Interpreting 4: Building Bridges; edited by E. Hung; John Benjamins:Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2002; pp. 65â€“72.
Lin, J., C. Davis, and P. Liao. The Effectiveness of Using International Mock Conference in Interpreting Courses. Stud. Translation Interpretation 2004, 9, 81â€“107.
Tsuruta, C., and M. Naito. Incorporating Practicums into the Conference Interpreting Program. Forum 2011, 9, 103-117.
Lin, W. Postgraduate T&I Learnersâ€™ Motivation of Interpreting Learning and Its Development: An Empirical Study. Ph.D Dissertation. Beijing Foreign Studies University, Beijing, 2014.
Ryan, R. M. Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1982, 43, 450-461.
DÃ¶rnyei, Z. Questionnaires in Second Language Research: Construction, Administration, and Processing; Lawrance Erlbaum Associates: Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2003.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior; Plenum:New York, USA,1985.
DÃ¶rnyei, Z. Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. The Modern Language Journal 1994, 78, 273-284.
Ryan, R.M., and Deci, E.L. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 2000, 25, 54-67.
Nicholls, J. (ed.) The development of Achievement Motivation; JAI Press:Greenwich, CT, USA,1984 .
Madrid, D. The power of the FL teacherâ€™s motivational strategies. CAUCE 2002, 25, 369-422.
Bandura, A. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist 1982, 37, 122-148.
Schafer, R. Aspects of internalization; International Universities Press:New York, USA,1968.
Deci, E.L., Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Ryan, R.M., Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective.Educational Psychologist1991, 26, 325-346.
Blanck, P . D., Reis, H. T., & Jackson, L. The effects of verbal reinforcement on intrinsic motivation for sex-linked tasks. Sex Roles 1984,10, 369-387.
Vallerand, R. J. Effect of differential amounts of positive verbal feedback on the intrinsic motivation of male hockey players. Journal of Sport Psychology 1983,5, 100-107.
Vallerand, R. J., & Reid, G . On the relative effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on males and femalesâ€™ intrinsic motivation. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences 1988, 20, 239-250.
Vallerand, R. J., & Reid, G. On the causal effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Sport Psychology 1984, 6, 94-102.
Grolnick, W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. The inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of childrenâ€™s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology 1991,83, 508-517.
Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., BriBre, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. Construction et validation de 1'Echelle de Motivation en Education [Construction and validation of theAcademic Motivation Scale]. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences 1989, 21,323-349.
Anderson, R., Manoogian, S. T., & Reznick, J. S. The Undermining and Enhancing of Intrinsic Motivation in Preschool Children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1976, 34, 915-922.
Grolnick, W. S., &Ryan, R. M. Parent styles associated with childrenâ€™s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology 1989, 81, 143-154.
Daoust, H., Vallerand, R. J., & Blais, M. R. Motivation and education: A look at some important consequences. Canadian Psychology 1988, 29,172 (abstract).
Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality 1992, 60, 599-620.
Pintrich, P . R., & De Groot, E. V. Motivational and self-regulated learning. Journal of Educationalâ€™ Psychology 1990, 82, 33-40.
Williams, G. C. and E. L. Deci. Internalization of Biopsychosocial Values by Medical Students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1996, 70, 767-779.
Frederic Guay,Robert J. Vallerand, and Celine Blanchard. On the Assessment of Situational Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and Emotion 2000, 24,175-213.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In Nebraska Symposium on motivation:Perspectives on motivation, R. Dienstbier (Ed.); University of Nebraska press:Lincoln, U.S., 1991;Volume 38, pp. 237â€“288.
Yockey, R. D. SPSS Demystified: A Step by Step Approach (2nd Edition); Prentice Hall: New Jersey, USA, 2010.
Johnmarshall Reeve and Brad Sickenius.Development and Validation of a Brief Measure of the Three Psychological Needs Underlying Intrinsic Motivation: The Afs Scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement 1994, 506-515.
McAuley E1, Duncan T., Tammen VV. Psychometric properties of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory in a competitive sport setting: a confirmatory factor analysis. Research Quarterly For Exercise Sport 1989,60,48-58.
Cohen, J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.); Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ, USA,1988.