Problems and Strategies: A Study of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Chinese Undergraduates in the Philippines
Download PDF


Cross-cultural adaptation
Chinese undergraduates in the Philippines
Problems and strategies



Submitted : 2022-10-25
Accepted : 2022-11-09
Published : 2022-11-24


Investigating the intercultural adaptation of Chinese undergraduates in the Philippines provides an effective example of bridging the gap between theories of intercultural adaptation. A questionnaire and interviews were conducted to explore the problems and challenges faced by Chinese undergraduates in the Philippines, thereby providing some first-hand information for subsequent studies on cultural adaptation. Chinese undergraduates in the Philippines faced four main challenges, namely interpersonal communication, living environment, social services, and course study. As coping strategies, four suggestions are presented, including cultural integration, life experience, bridge building, and rational docking.


Redfield R, Linton R, Herskovits MJ, 1936, Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American anthropologist, 38(1): 149–152.

Mendenhall M, Oddou G, 1985, The Dimensions of Expatriate Acculturation: A Review. Academy of Management Review, 10(1): 39–47.

Ward C, Bochner S, Furnham A, 2005, The Psychology of Culture Shock, Routledge.

Yan K, 2011, Exploring the Situation of Chinese Undergraduates in the United States: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Challenges. Tsinghua University Education Research, 32(2): 100–109.

Xiao W, 2018, Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Competence Development of Chinese Undergraduates in the United States. Journalism Research Guide, 9(19): 220–222.

Huo C, Li S, Xu H, et al., 2017, A Preliminary Study on the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of International Undergraduates in the UK. Education and Teaching Forum, 2017(03): 68–70.

Yao J, 2013, An Examination of the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Chinese Undergraduates in Japan. Journal of Changsha Railway Institute (Social Science Edition), 14(03): 101–102.

Tian L, Zhang H, 2015, Survey and Analysis of the Current Situation of Cross-Cultural Adaptation Among Chinese Undergraduates in Russia. Siberian Studies, 42(05): 51–55.

Pei H, 2019, An Empirical Study on the Academic Adaptation of Chinese Undergraduates in Russia, thesis, Northeast Normal University.

Soberano R, 1980, The Dialects of Marinduque Tagalog, thesis, The Australian National University.

Espiritu C, 2015, Filipino Language in the Curriculum, viewed March 20, 2020,

Chinese Embassy in the Philippines, 2021, Adhering to the Main Theme of China-Philippines Friendship and Cooperation and Building a Closer Partnership in the New Era, viewed November 22, 2022,