Analysis of Policy Change in the Implementation Process
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Policy implementation
Goal ambiguity
Street-level bureaucrats



Submitted : 2022-05-21
Accepted : 2022-06-05
Published : 2022-06-20


Policy implementation, refers to putting policy intentions into effect. This process largely depends on the interactions between the implementers and their service users, partners, and superiors. The reasons for policy change can be attributed to three aspects. Firstly, varied contextual conditions require changing policy measures adapted to different situations, and vague policy goals that permeate the policy process provide the prerequisite for policy deformation. Secondly, policy delivery agencies, who lack resources and supervision, “decode” policy goals based on practical contexts and arrange the tasks. Thirdly, street-level bureaucrats use discretion based on working attributes and personal factors. Finally, these factors from multiple layers interact and result in policy changes in the implementation process. This article illustrates the macro-level implementation environment and the meso-level implementation institutions, which compose the prerequisite conditions for policy implementation, as well as micro-level implementers, who play key roles in shaping policies. This comprehensive analytical structure is helpful to determine the effectiveness of public policies.


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