Since Jimei navigation College of Fujian Province started five-year junior college education in 1984, five-year higher vocational education has become one of the important forms of Higher Vocational Education in China. In the 1960s, with the rapid development of Japan's economy, there was a shortage of technical personnel. In order to cultivate a large number of technical personnel in a short period of time, Japan's specialized colleges and universities recruited junior high school graduates, studied in school for five years, and obtained an associate's degree after graduation, which provided a large number of technical personnel for the development of Japan's basic industry manufacturing industry. By combing the development process of Japan's colleges and universities, this paper studies Japan's colleges and universities from the aspects of school running subjects, talent training objectives, training methods and evaluation methods. It can provide the basis and implementation methods for China to better promote the convergence of secondary and higher vocational education, strengthen the training of secondary and higher vocational education, and provide theoretical basis and practical experience for improving the quality of five-year higher vocational education.