With the advancement of science and technology, photography has evolved from heavy technology to light equipment, allowing it to become more accessible to the general public. Therefore, the documentary may be separated from professional media organizations and transformed into a personal action. As a result, independent documentaries started to emerge. This is based on the bottom of society and focuses on the viewpoint of young people, who can actually reconstruct society. “Four Springs” is regarded as one of China’s most outstanding works in the field of independent documentary.
Yu S, 2020, Development and Innovation of Chinese Documentary Under Realistic Theory. Popular Literature and Art, 2020(03): 189-190.
Yin Z, 2019, Creation and Dissemination of Chinese Independent Documentaries from the Perspective of Civilians – Taking Four Springs as an Example. Media Forum, 2019(23):182-183.
Ian A, Wang C, 2013, Realism, Philosophy and Documentary. World film, 2013(01): 183-192.
Pan M, 2019, The “True Expression” of Hand-Held Photography – An Interpretation of the Image Language of Four Springs. Film and Television Production, 2019(12): 85-89.
Wang L, 2019, The Documentary Style of the Independent Documentary Four Springs. Young Journalist, 2019(35): 97-98.
Du X, You H, 2020, Public Communication Value and Ethical Dilemma of Private Documentary Four Springs. Sound Screen World, 2020(16): 68-69.
Wu Y, 2020, Discussion on the Commercial Value Realization of the Content and Style of Four Springs from Poetic Realism. Global Premiere, 2020(5): 46-47.
Luo Y, 2020, Alternative Aesthetics of Documentary – Taking Four Springs and Ladder of Heaven As Examples. Satellite TV and Broadband Multimedia, 2020(14): 126-128.
Wang Y, 2019, Four Springs Waits for the Spring of the Documentary. BusinessWeek (Chinese version), 2019(2): 12-14.
Song W, 2019, The Cultural Dimension of the Documentary Four Springs: A Warm and Sentimental Journey Back to the Hometown. Film Review, 2019(6): 22-24.
Zhang B, Pan T, 2019, Private Records and Life Images – Interpretation of the Documentary Film Four Springs. New Film, 2019(2): 80-85.