In order to explore the influence of interest rate liberalization on profitability, an empirical analysis is carried out with the panel data of commercial banks in China from 2009 to 2019. Then, the heterogeneity of the impact is studied among different banks. The results show that, first, interest rate liberalization and commercial banks’ profitability have an inverted U-shaped relationship, whereby interest rate liberalization would increase the profitability of banks in the early stage but would reduce the profitability after reaching a peak inflection point at the later stage. Secondly, the impact varies among different banks, being more significant in urban commercial banks and large state-owned banks.
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