With the development of social economy and industry, fisheries also play an important role in the development of the country. In the process of fishery development, the problems in the fishermen's social security system are becoming more and more serious, and the types of problems are gradually increasing. Discovering the problems existing in the development of fisheries, and making up and correcting them in time, has an important role in promoting the development of fisheries and social and economic development. In recent years, the issue of “agriculture, rural areas and farmers” has been a hot topic of discussion. During the course of the problem, the party and the government introduced a series of safeguard measures and policy systems. Based on this, this paper focuses on the problems existing in the fishermen's social security system and the measures to solve the problems. At the same time, the reasons for the reform of the fishermen's social security system are also briefly explained. The main reasons can be divided into four points, namely the cost of living, unemployment insurance for fishermen, fishery resources, and income of fishermen, etc., which are the reasons why the fishery social security system is in urgent need of optimization, contributing to the sustainable development and progress of fisheries.