Diesel poisoning is a rare clinical condition. On September 27, 2021, a 55-year-old male who mistakenly inhaled 20 mL of diesel through a siphon was admitted to our hospital. The main symptoms were cough and asthma. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed both lungs scattered with patchy consolidation, ground-glass shadow, exudation, and pleural effusion. After 61 days of lung rehabilitation training and other supportive treatment, including oxygen therapy, postural drainage, ventilator support, bronchoalveolar lavage, hemoperfusion, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), hormones, and antibiotics, the patient’s condition improved, and the patient was discharged. Through literature review, we found that lung consolidation, ground-glass shadow, nodular lesions, and pleural effusion can be observed on chest images of patients with lipoid pneumonia, with severe cases showing diffuse lesions involving both lungs, possibly secondary to respiratory failure. Children with acute critical illness deteriorates rapidly and have poor prognosis, whereas adults or patients with chronic poisoning have better prognosis after active treatment.
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