Management of Patients with Heart Failure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Download PDF


Heart failure
Cardiovascular risk
Submitted : 2023-05-27
Accepted : 2023-06-11
Published : 2023-06-26


The management of patients with cardiometabolic diseases is particularly complex and involves professionals from various disciplines. Cardiologists and diabetologists, the coordinators of this process, should cooperate in the implementation of a joint treatment and care plan. Based on these premises, a group formed by cardiologists from the Regional Association of Ambulatory Cardiologists (ARCA) and diabetologists from the Association of Diabetologists (AMD), operating in Campania, was set up to define the critical points and create shared diagnostic and therapeutic processes. We review the current evidence and gather the opinions of the group concerning the identification of patients at higher risk of diabetes and/or heart failure and the management of patients with known diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and heart failure.


Savarese G, Lund LH, 2017, Global Public Health Burden of Heart Failure. Card Fail Rev, 3(1): 7–11.

Istat, 2017, Il Diabete in Italia [Diabetes in Italy], viewed on January 13, 2022., accesso del

Tarantini L, Di Lenarda A, Velussi M, et al., 2004, Diabetes Mellitus, Left Ventricular Dysfunction

and Congestive Heart Failure. Ital Heart J, 5(8): 605–615.

Wilkinson MJ, Zadourian A, Taub PR, 2019, Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus: Defining the Problem and Exploring the Interrelationship. Am J Cardiol, 124: S3–S11.

Campbell P, Krim S, Ventura H, 2015, The Bi-Directional Impact of Two Chronic Illnesses: Heart Failure and Diabetes. Card Fail Rev, 1(1): 8–10.

McDonagh TA, Metra M, Adamo M, et al., 2021, 2021 ESC Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure. Eur Heart J, 42(36): 3599–3726.

Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, et al., 2021, Empagliflozin in Heart Failure with a Preserved Ejection

Fraction. N Engl J Med, 385(16): 1451–1461.

Mannucci E, Candido R, delle Monache L, et al., 2021, La Terapia del Diabete Mellito di Tipo 2. Linea Guida della Società Italiana di Diabetologia (SID) e dell’Associazione dei Medici Diabetologi (AMD). Metodologia e Sintesi [Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Therapy. Guideline by the Società Italiana di Diabetologia (SID) and the Associazione Medici Diabetologi (AMD). Methodology and Synthesis.] JAMD, 24(3): 232–240.

Segar MW, Vaduganathan M, Patel KV, et al., 2019, Machine Learning to Predict the Risk of Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization Among Patients With Diabetes: The WATCH-DM Risk Score. Diabetes Care, 42(12): 2298–2306.

American Diabetes Association, 2021, 3. Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes–2021. Diabetes Care, 44: S34–S39.

Van Spall HGC, Rahman T, Mytton O, et al., 2017, Comparative Effectiveness of Transitional Care Services in Patients Discharged from the Hospital with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Eur J Heart Fail, 19(1): 1427–1443.

Jonkman NH, Westland H, Groenwold RH, et al., 2016, What Are Effective Program Characteristics of Self-Management Interventions in Patients with Heart Failure? An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis. J Card Fail, 22(11): 861–871.

Botta A, Carbone V, Carella G, et al., 2019, Scompenso Cardiaco nel Paziente con Diabete in Campania (SCO.DIA.C.) [Heart Failure in Patients with Diabetes in Campania]. The Journal of AMD, 22(4): 219–229.

De Luca M, Bosso G, Valvano A, et al., 2021, Management of Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The SCODIAC-II Study. Intern Emerg Med, 16(4): 895–903.