Primary dysmenorrhea is one of the common gynecological diseases of women of childbearing age, which can affect the work, study, and life of patients in severe cases. From the perspective of Western medicine, primary dysmenorrhea is caused by excessive secretion of prostaglandin and contraction of uterine smooth muscle, so the treatment focus of Western medicine is oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or contraceptives, but its side effects cannot be ignored. From the perspective of Chinese medicine, primary dysmenorrhea is caused by qi-blood stagnation, so the focus of Chinese medication is dialectical treatment, which can improve qi-blood stagnation by acupuncture, decoction, moxibustion, etc., with fewer side effects and long-term clinical significance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relevant literature about the pathogenesis and treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in recent years, and to understand the research progress of primary dysmenorrhea in Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, so as to provide a reference for clinical treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.
Huang HY, 2015, Therapeutic Observation of Moxibustion with Different Acupoints for Primary Dysmenorrhea. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 34(7): 650–651. https://doi.org/10.13460/j.issn.1005-0957.2015.07.0650
Li J, Liu Y, Chen ZX, et al., 2022, Clinical Study on Buccal Acupuncture for Moderate-To-Severe Primary Dysmenorrhea. New Chinese Medicine, 54(21): 165–169. https://doi.org/10.13457/j.cnki.jncm.2022.21.037
Zhang F, Sun M, Han S, et al., 2018, Acupuncture for Primary Dysmenorrhea: An Overview of Systematic Reviews. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2018: 8791538. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8791538
Carroquino-Garcia P, Medrano-Sanchez E, 2019, Therapeutic Exercise in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Phys Ther, 99(10): 1371–1380. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzz101
Iacovides S, Avidon I, Baker FC, 2015, What We Know About Primary Dysmenorrhea Today: A Critical Review. Hum Reprod Update, 21(6): 762–778. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmv039
Dingfelder JR, 1981, Primary Dysmenorrhea Treatment with Prostaglandin Inhibitors: A Review. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 140(8): 874–879. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(81)90077-6
Benedetto C, 1989, Eicosanoids in Primary Dysmenorrhea, Endometriosis and Menstrual Migraine. Gynecol Endocrinol, 3(1): 71-94. https://doi.org/10.3109/09513598909152454
Jia RZ, Liu XM, 2009, Effects of Oxytocin and Prostaglandins on Oxytocin Receptor Expression of Human Myometrial Smooth Muscle Cell. Chinese Journal of Biochemical Pharmaceutics, 30(6): 379–382.
Yu Q, Li D-S, Li Y-J, et al., 2015, Study of Angelica – Ligusticum Wallichii against Uterine Tissue Spasm of Primary Dysmenorrhea Mouse Based on PGF2? Concentration Changes. Yunan Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, 36(11): 62–64. https://doi.org/10.16254/j.cnki.53-1120/r.2015.11.033
Dawood MY, 2006, Primary Dysmenorrhea: Advances in Pathogenesis and Management. Obstet Gynecol, 108(2): 428–441. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000230214.26638.0c
Guimaraes I, Povoa AM, 2020, Primary Dysmenorrhea: Assessment and Treatment. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet, 42(8): 501–507. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1712131
Cho S-H, Hwang E-W, 2010, Acupuncture for Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Systematic Review. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 117(5): 509–521. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02489.x
Ferries-Rowe E, Corey E, Archer JS, 2020, Primary Dysmenorrhea: Diagnosis and Therapy. Obstet Gynecol, 136(5): 1047–1058. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004096
Liu P, Duan J-A, Liu R, et al., 2011, Determination of Extracellular 5-HIAA in the Brains of Normal and Primary Dysmenorrheal Rats by Microdialysis Coupled with HPLC-ECD and Its Application in Evaluation of Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction Efficacy. China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, 26(5): 902–907.
Fang L, Zhu XB, Fan TM, 2011, Research Progress on the Correlation Between Oxytocin and Primary Dysmenorrhea. Tianjin Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 28(5): 435–437.
Richter ON, Kübler K, Schmolling J, et al., 2004, Oxytocin Receptor Gene Expression of Estrogen-Stimulated Human Myometrium in Extracorporeally Perfused Non-Pregnant Uteri. Mol Hum Reprod, 10(5): 339–346. https://doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gah039
Slonina D, Kowalik MK, Subocz M, et al., 2009, The Effect of Ovarian Steroids on Oxytocin-Stimulated Secretion and Synthesis of Prostaglandins in Bovine Myometrial Cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat, 90(3–4): 69–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2009.08.006
Liedman R, Hansson SR, Howe D, et al., 2008, Endometrial Expression of Vasopressin, Oxytocin and Their Receptors in Patients with Primary Dysmenorrhoea and Healthy Volunteers at Ovulation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 137(2): 189–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2007.10.015
Bossma T, Akerlund M, Szamatowi J, et al., 1995, Receptor-Mediated Uterine Effects of Vasopressin and Oxytocin in Nonpregnant Women. Br J Obstet Gynaecol, 102(11): 907–912. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.1995.tb10880.x
Ji B, Ren X-X, Zhao Y-F, et al., 2008, Comments on Study of Pathogenesy, Prevention and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea. China Journal of Modern Medicine, 2008(13): 1856–1858 + 1862.
Pu BC, Jiang GY, Fang L, 2014, Research on Pain Related Factors and Associations of Primary Dysmenorrhea. Chinese Archives of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2014(6): 1368–1370. https://doi.org/10.13193/j.issn.1673-7717.2014.06.037
Qiao L, Qiao YY, Zhang WD, 2016, Etiological Analysis and Treatment Progress of Primary Dysmenorrhea. World Latest Medicine Information, 16(82): 31–32. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-3141.2016.82.021
Sun M, Liu FL, Ren Y, 2019, Research Progress of Modern Medical Knowledge and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea. World Latest Medicine Information, 19(7): 29–30. https://doi.org/10.19613/j.cnki.1671-3141.2019.07.014
Chen F, Zhu M, Tang YP, 2011, Effect of Essential Rhizoma Chuanxiong-Radix Paeoniae Alba on Level of Nitric Oxide and Calcium Ion in Uterine Tissue of Mice. Lishizhen Medicine and Materia Medica Research, 22(4): 788–789. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1008-0805.2011.04.004
Xiao Z, Zuo HY, 2011, Effect of Ningxin Huantong Decoction on Nitric Oxide and Calcium Ion in Uterus of Rats with Primary Dysmenorrhea of Cold Coagulation and Blood Stasis Type. Xinjiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 29(1): 10–11.
Sun Y, Ji H, Chen B, et al., 2017, Research Progress in Pathogenesis and Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrheal. China Pharmacist, 2017(1): 144–147.
Wang YY, 2015, Research Progress of Pathogenesis and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrheal. China Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, 2015(7): 2447–2449.
Wang B, Han Z, 2017, Study on the Correlation Between 504 Cases of Primary Dysmenorrhea of Young Women and TCM Constitution. Jiangxi Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 48(10): 48–50.
Yi P, Song G, 2020, Clinical Research Progress of Primary Dysmenorrhea Treated with Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. Xinjiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 38(2): 89–92.
Dong Y-J, Jiang Y-Q, Liu Y, et al., 2022, Research Progress of Treating Dysmenorrhea with Traditional Chinese Medicine. Chinese Herbal Medicine, 53(12): 3842–3851. https://doi.org/10.7501/j.issn.0253-2670.2022.12.031
Nie W-J, Xu S-S, Zhang Y-M, 2021, Research Progress in Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea. Journal of Basic Chinese Medicine, 27(4): 683–689. https://doi.org/10.19945/j.cnki.issn.1006-3250.2021.04.039
Zhang QN, Lin HY, Sun Q, 2022, Treating 46 Cases of Primary Dysmenorrhea with Reyanbao, a Traditional Chinese Medicine for Dispelling Cold, dredging Meridian and Relieving Pain. Chinese Journal of Traditional Medical Science and Technology, 29(6): 1126–1127.
Zheng W, Li W, Hao X, et al., 2021, Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Umbilical Medicine Moxibustion on Primary Dysmenorrhea with Syndrome of Cold Coagulation and Blood Stasis. Modern Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, 30(35): 3884–3895. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1008-8849.2021.35.002
Kho KA, Shields JK, 2020, Diagnosis and Management of Primary Dysmenorrhea. JAMA, 323(3): 268–269. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.16921
Osayande AS, Mehulic S, 2014, Diagnosis and Initial Management of Dysmenorrhea. Am Fam Physician, 89(5): 341–346.
Davis AR, Westhoff CL, 2001, Primary Dysmenorrhea in Adolescent Girls and Treatment with Oral Contraceptives. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 14(1): 3–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1083-3188(00)00076-0
Cheng F-L, 2017, Clinical Observation of Vitamin E in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrheal. Clinical Research and Practice, 2017(6): 96–97. https://doi.org/10.19347/j.cnki.2096-1413.201706050
Ren Q, Wang X, 2020, Treatment Progress of Primary Dysmenorrhea by Chinese and Western Medicine. Journal of Practical Traditional Chinese Internal Medicine, 2020(7): 4–7. https://doi.org/10.13729/j.issn.1671-7813.Z20200224
Li Y, 1998, Experience of Xintongding in Treating 30 Cases of Primary Dysmenorrhea. Guangdong Medical Journal, 1998(11): 872.
McKenna KA, Fogleman CD, 2021, Dysmenorrhea. Am Fam Physician, 104(2): 164–170.
Chen F-P, Soong Y-K, 1997, The Efficacy and Complication of Laparoscopic Presacral Neurectomy in Pelvic Pain. Obstet Gynecol, 90(6): 974–977. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0029-7844(97)00484-5
Sharghi M, Mansurkhani SM, Larky DA, et al., 2019, An Update and Systematic Review on the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea. JBRA Assist Reprod, 23(1): 51–57. https://doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20180083
Guo J-F, 2020, Effects of Acupuncture with Back-Shu and Front-Mu Acupoint Grouping on PGF2?, ?-EP and Uterine Artery Blood Flow in Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients. Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 2020(9): 1118–1122. https://doi.org/10.13460/j.issn.1005-0957.2020.09.1118
Lin L-L, Liu C-Z, Huang B-Y, et al., 2008, Clinical Observation on Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea with Acupuncture and Message. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 28(5): 418–420.
Tang XM, Liu XC, 2015, The Acupuncture in the Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea for 30 Cases. Chinese Medicine Modern Distance Education of China, 12: 83–84. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1672-2779.2015.22.045
Jie WJ, Fang XL, Pu RS, et al., 2017, Analgesic Effect of Buccal Acupuncture on Acute Arthritis in Rabbits and Underlying Mechanisms. Journal of Central South University (Medical Science), 42(5): 517–521. https://doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2017.05.006
Ren CZ, Du XZ, Fang XL, 2012, Analgesic Effect of Buccal Acupuncture and Changes of ?-EP and CCK-8 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis Rabbits. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine, 19(12): 37–39.
Guan XY, 2020, The Clinical Study on the Treatment of Dysmenorrhea Due to Endometriosis Using the Buccal Acupuncture. Traditional Chinese Medicine University of Guangzhou. https://doi.org/10.27044/d.cnki.ggzzu.2020.000551.
Yuan L, Lin D, Kang XL, et al., 2021, Shaofu Zhuyu Decoction for Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicine, 100(23): e26226. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026226
Wang ZT, He QY, Zheng H, et al., 2019, Clinical Effect of Acupoint Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Jingui Wenjing Decoction as the Bottom Prescription on Primary Dysmenorrhea of Cold Coagulation and Blood Stasis Type. Electronic Journal of Practical Gynecologic Endocrinology, 2019(11): 121–122. https://doi.org/10.16484/j.cnki.issn2095-8803.2019.11.077
Zhao FR, 2020, Clinical Effect of Modified Shaoyao Gancao Decoction in Treating 100 Cases of Primary Dysmenorrhea. Clinical Journal of Chinese Medicine, 12(3): 128–129. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1674-7860.2020.03.056
Wang YJ, Shi YP, 2019, Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea with Wenjing Huayu Decoction Combined with Guizhi Fuling Capsule Analgesic Effect and Its Influence on the Levels of Sex Hormone and Prostaglandin F2alpha. Hebei Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 41(11): 1670–1673 + 1679. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-2619.2019.11.015
Liao B-D, Liu Y-E, Peng Z-M, et al., 2019, Therapeutic Effects on Primary Dysmenorrhea Treated with Moxibustion at Shenque (CV 8) and Warm Needling at Guanyuan (CV 4) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6). Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 2019(4): 367–370 + 376. https://doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.2019.04.006
Liu Y-H, Wang X, 2019, Clinical Observation of 147 Patients of Primary Dysmenorrhea of Cold and Blood Stagnation Syndrome in Treatment with Moxibustion. World Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 14(9): 1316–1318 + 1323. https://doi.org/10.13935/j.cnki.sjzx.190932.
Li C, Ma XJ, Wei XL, 2018, Clinical Study of Moxibustion Treating Primary Dysmenorrhea of Congealed Cold-Dampness Pattern. Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, 34(6): 48–51.
Hou Z, Zhang WH, 2016, Clinical Study on Moxibustion in Treating 35 Cases of Primary Dysmenorrhea. Modern Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2016(2): 50–53. https://doi.org/10.13424/j.cnki.mtcm.2016.02.019.