Background: Considering the development model adopted in Brazilian agriculture, which is based on the increasing demand for chemicals, studies that analyze the impact of pesticide use are relevant to measure the developments in affected populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review using the digital platform, searching for scientific publications from 2009–2019 on exposure of pregnant women to pesticides. Methods: We used PubMed to search for scientific articles published between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2019, and related to exposure of pregnant women to pesticides in rural areas. Results: Initially, 207 publications were selected considering the titles and abstracts. Literature works that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. After selection, 15 studies remained. According to the publications on the exposure of pregnant women to pesticides in rural areas from 2009 to 2019, it was found that the damage caused by pesticide exposure to the health of pregnant women and their babies includes problems in gestational weight gain, premature birth, low birth weight, presence of pesticides in blood of both mother and newborn, presence of agricultural pesticides in the cerebral cortex of fetus, and miscarriages. Conclusion: Future prospective studies at individual level are needed to better assess the potential impact of pesticide exposure on the health of pregnant women and newborns.
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