Objective: To investigate the Computed Tomography (CT) features of papillary thyroid carcinoma and nodular goiter. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with thyroid disease admitted to our hospital from January 2016 to December 2018. Among them, sixty patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma and thirty patients with nodular goiter were examined by CT scan and enhanced examination. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the volume index of left lobe, right lobe and isthmus in thyroid patients (P>0.05). There were significant statistical differences in the growth site, morphology, border, density, calcification and enhancement mode of nodules ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: CT examination has significant diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and nodular thyroid.