Pharmacist-Managed Anticoagulation Services for Warfarin Management in Tertiary Hospitals: The Egyptian Experience
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Keywords

Pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services
Warfarin
Anticoagulation clinic
Therapeutic drug monitoring

DOI

10.26689/jcnr.v6i3.3844

Abstract

Background: Warfarin is widely regarded as the main anticoagulant in lowering the risk of thromboembolism. This study used indicators to compare pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services, using a well-prepared protocol, with physician-managed anticoagulation services. Methods: A retrospective prospective pilot study was conducted to compare patient outcomes before and after transitioning patients to pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services, comparing the proportion of those with therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR), subtherapeutic INR, and supratherapeutic INR, as well as their bleeding occurrences as indicators of assuring quality care. Results: A significant improvement in anticoagulation management was noted in the transition to pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services. The proportion of those with subtherapeutic INR decreased from 61.8% to 11.8% (p < 0.001), those with supratherapeutic INR decreased from 20.6% to 2.9% (p < 0.001), those with therapeutic INR increased from 17.6% to 85.3% (p < 0.001), and the occurrence of bleeding decreased from 11.8% to 0.0%, without significant difference in warfarin doses (median from 4 before the transition to 5 after); in addition, the time to reach therapeutic INR decreased from 12-24 weeks to 2-8 weeks after transitioning to pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services. Conclusion: Pharmacist-managed anticoagulation services are considered safer and more effective than physician-managed anticoagulation services alone in terms of patients’ adherence and satisfaction, which provide an excellent opportunity for quality assurance care.

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