Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in clinical practice. The pathogenesis of HCC is still unclear. Currently, the clinical treatment of HCC is poorly targeted and the therapeutic effect is poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the occurrence of HCC, and they are mainly involved in the occurrence and development of HCC through binding to target genes or acting on related signaling pathways. In recent years, studies have shown that miRNA can be used as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. In addition, studies have also shown that miRNA plays a tumor-suppressing or tumor-promoting role in the process of HCC by regulating the biological processes of tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. In this paper, the recent studies on miRNA signaling pathways related to the occurrence and development of HCC were reviewed, with a view to providing ideas for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of HCC.