Objective: To explore and analyze on how to prevent and treat deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs in patients with complications after orthopedic trauma surgery. Methods: The research patients were selected from the cases of surgical treatment of orthopedic trauma in the hospital during the past two years, and a total of 58 patients were selected. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 29 patients in the control group treated with conventional clinical methods; and the other 29 patients were assigned to the experimental group, where targeted preventive and therapeutic measures were administered. During the research, the number of complications of postoperative deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs and the corresponding treatment efficacy were compared between the two groups of patients. Results: According to the results of clinical experiments, the probability of patients in the experimental group suffering from deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs after surgery was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05); in addition, when complications of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs occurred, the treatment efficacy of the patients in the experimental group was 96.55%, and the treatment efficacy of the patients in the control group was 82.76%. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Through clinical experiments to study and analyze the prevention and treatment measures of deep vein thrombosis in patients with complications after orthopedic trauma surgery, this research proves that active and comprehensive preventive and treatment measures can effectively reduce the number of complications and improve surgery treatment efficacy.