Objective: To study the clinical effects of emergency surgery in treating patients with acute abdominal pain. Methods: 60 patients admitted to our hospital between January 2019 and December 2019 were randomly selected as subjects, and the incidence of complications and mortality of the patients were observed. Results: Among the 60 patients, definitive diagnosis was obtained during the operation and there was no mortality. After the operation, they were transferred to other relevant departments for continued treatment. Among the 60 patients, 4 cases had complications, accounted for incidence of 6.67%. Conclusion: The diagnosis of emergency surgical treatment based on acute abdominal pain avoided misdiagnosis and realized non-invasive diagnosis, and provided a valid reference for avoiding overtreatment.