Objective: Analyze and summarize the risk assessment of perioperative infection of 263 diabetic patients undergoing small bowel lateral-lateral anastomos(intestinal bypass )in the small intestine's side ,discuss the managerial methods of antimicrobial agents during the perioperative period. Methods: Retrospectively analyze the clinical data of patients who underwent laparoscopic small bowel lateral anastomosis (intestinal bypass) from January 2018 to December 2018. The patients with HBA1c ?9.0% were selected as the observation group and patients with HBA1c < 9.0% as the control group. Results: The decling range of the average value about blood glucose in the observation group was greater than that in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The average postoperative neutrophil ratio of the observation group was higher than that of the control group; and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). The proportion of patients with postoperative body temperature over 37 degrees in the observation group was higher than that in the control group. Conclusion: Laparoscopic lateral anastomosis (intestinal bypass surgery) may cause intestinal fluid overflow and intestinal flora ectopic, for the diabetic patients with poor blood glucose control, perioperative risk of infection increased, we should consider strengthening the grade of antimicrobial agents in preventive application, better cover gram-negative bacteria and anaerobic bacteria.