Objective: To achieve the effective construction of NICU nursing quality evaluation index and promote the necessary improvement of the success rate of treatment of critically ill newborns. Methods: The "structure-process-outcome" model was used to construct the necessary logical relationship for NICU nursing quality evaluation indicators. Then the NICU nursing quality evaluation indexes were initially established and defined accordingly. After that, the consultation scoring method was used to carry out the two rounds of questionnaire consultation, which was divided, deleted, and modified in the process. The second round of quality assessment indicators for critical neonatal care were used as research results. The establishment of the corresponding judgment matrix and the determination of the weighting relationship of each evaluation index were realized. Results: Forty-eight experts from 12 tertiary care children's hospitals in 9 provinces and cities in China participated in the questionnaire consultation. After the work, the resulting quality assessment indicators for critical neonatal care were agreed upon by all the experts. Sixty-seven quality indicators for critical neonatal care (18 process indicators) were evaluated based on the Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model. The necessary definitional work was achieved for the first round of questionnaire consultations (1 evaluation indicator, 19 structural indicators, 30 outcome indicators). In the first round of questionnaire consultations, eight evaluation indicators were deleted, one evaluation indicator was split, four evaluation indicators were added, and four indicators were added. Two evaluation indicators were combined. In the second round of questionnaire consultation, 5 evaluation indicators were removed, resulting in a more complete quality of care for critically ill newborns. Conclusion: Based on the "structure-process-outcome" model, the 58 indicators for evaluating the quality of tertiary NICU care were fully obtained. The unanimous approval of the consulting experts provides a solid foundation for the later stages of treatment of critically ill neonates.