Objective: Transforaminal endoscope was used in the treatment of thoracic disc herniation and the therapeutic effect was discussed. Methods: Sixteen patients with thoracic disc herniation admitted to our hospital from October 2018 to May 2019 were divided into control group and observation group according to the random number table method, with 8 patients in each group. The control group was treated with posterior laminectomy approach, and the observation group was treated with transforaminal endoscope. The surgery-related conditions (intraoperative blood loss, surgery time, and postoperative drainage volume), VAS score, JOA score and postoperative complications were compared and analyzed. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the total effective rate and preoperative VAS score (P > 0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had shorter surgery time and incision length, less postoperative drainage volume, and higher VAS score 3 days after surgery, JOA score on day 7 after surgery, and JOA score 3 months after surgery, showing statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the complications between the two groups (X2=1.067, P=0.833). Conclusions: Transforaminal endoscope had a good clinical effect with small incision and injury in the treatment of patients with thoracic disc herniation.