Objective: To investigate the effects of high-flux hemodialysis on inflammatory factors and nutritional status in patients with severe renal failure. Methods: A total of 72 patients with severe renal failure who underwent dialysis treatment in the hospital from January 2017 to March 2019 were selected as the research subjects, and they were randomly divided into 2 groups with 36 patients each. The control group underwent low-flux hemodialysis, and the observation group underwent high-flux hemodialysis. The levels of inflammatory factors and nutritional status were compared between the two groups after treatment. Results: The levels of various inflammatory factors in the observation group were lower than those in the control group and the nutritional indexes were higher than those in the control group after 4 weeks of treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: High-throughput hemodialysis in patients with severe renal failure can significantly reduce the levels of inflammatory factors and improve nutritional status.