Effect of Opening Size on the Development of Ventilation-limited Fire


Open size
Vertical ventilation
Exhaust efficiency
Flue gas concentration




There are many factors, that affect the development of indoor fire, such as the size of the fire source, the opening or space of the room, and the nature of the combustible materials. Among them, the space of the room, has a significant impact on the development of a ventilation-limited fire. In this paper, the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software is used to analyze, the risk of fire initiation in the restricted ventilated compartment, when the size of vertical ventilation space is different. Through, a combination of experimental design, numerical simulation, and theoretical analysis, the changes in the level of carbon monoxide, visibility, temperature, Heat Release Rate (HRR) and, the smoke exhaust efficiency of natural smoke at different opening sizes are observed. It is observed that, when the ratio of inlet and outlet area reaches 2:1, the natural smoke exhaust effect is the best, however, the increasing in the opening size has little significance on the smoke exhaust effect. The research on the influence of smoke outlet size, will helps in the development of the law regarding fire prevention, smoke exhaust design, and fire rescue work of a building.


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