Biosynthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Coated with Metabolites Extracted from Clerodendron phlomoides with Its Biochemical Studies in Liver Tissue
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Silver nanoparticles
Clerodendron phlomoides
Aqueous extract
Liver cancer



Submitted : 2023-06-05
Accepted : 2023-06-20
Published : 2023-07-05


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as a potential nanomaterial-based drug delivery vehicle for liver cancer treatment, as it induces cell death and produces cytotoxicity against cancerous cells at a low concentration. The biosynthesis of green metallic nanoparticles uses secondary metabolites in plant extracts instead of toxic chemicals for a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction. The biosynthesis of AgNPs with the aqueous extract of Clerodendron phlomoides was performed in this study. The phytochemical analysis of C. phlomoides extract using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the presence of redox metabolites. The peak at 489 nm in UV-visible spectra confirmed the formation of bioactive AgNPs reduced from silver nitrate solution, whereas the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated the bioactive molecules of plant extracts that are responsible for the formation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph revealed the formation of spherical and ovoid structures of AgNPs, whereas transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrograph confirmed the size of AgNPs, which varies from 25 nm to 100 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra showed the crystalline nature of AgNPs, and the size of crystallite was 4 nm, while dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis confirmed the average particle size of AgNPs to be around 125 nm. In vivo studies showed that bioactive AgNPs have a significant anticancer potential against liver cancer, whereas biochemical studies of rats’ liver tissue samples confirmed that bioactive AgNPs produced a potential hepatoprotective effect against diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer.


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