Objective: To investigate the expression and impact of helper T cell type 17 and CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in anti-mitochondrial M2 antibody (AMA-M2) positive primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) patients. Methods: Thirty PBC patients with positive AMA (M2 type) (antibody titer above 1:320) by indirect immunofluorescence assay under the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University from November 2021 to August 2022 were selected as the experimental group, while 30 healthy individuals were selected as controls. The subjects were observed and analyzed for AFP-L3 and immunoglobulin expression. Results: The levels of Thl7, Treg, Thl7/Treg, interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-2, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 cytokines of the experimental group were 2.61 ± 0.48, 1.15 ± 0.54, 2.41 ± 0.47, 310.94 ± 21.14, 276.36 ± 36.12, 317.89 ± 28.97, and 197.48 ± 31.04, respectively, while those of the control group were 1.14 ± 0.58, 0.88 ± 0.29, 1.47 ± 0.25, 9.69 ± 1.26, 57.69 ± 2.45, 154.01 ± 19.87, and 514.36 ± 36.12, respectively, wherein P < 0.05; the CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ of the experimental group were 39.48 ± 4.19, 20.12 ± 4.41, and 1.76 ± 0.14, respectively, while those of the control group were 35.78 ± 4.21, 22.01 ± 4.16, and 1.51 ± 0.13, respectively, wherein P < 0.05. Conclusion: In patients with PBC, there is a significant imbalance in Thl7/Treg cells. Il-17A, IL-2, IL-10, and TGF- ?1 cytokines play important roles in the differentiation and functional expression of both Thl7 and Treg cells.
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