In this paper, a new type of solar energy automatic tracking controller based on single chip microcomputer is designed to improve the utilization rate of solar energy. Using AT89S52 microcontroller as the core control components, through two photoelectric sensors, signal is collected through the comparison circuit and A / D, the results will be outputted to the single-chip microcontroller for data analysis and processing before output to ULN2003A to control the five-wire four-phase step motor to achieve the tracking of the sun position. The system has the advantages of low cost, and has good anti-interference ability improving the utilization rate of solar energy. The design firstly completed the simulation of the program, and then mainly editing using C language programming to complete the program design. Through the downloader the program will be programmed into the microcontroller. Finally, through the construction of hardware experiments to achieve the objective of designed tracking.