Objective: To explore the effects of two types of surgical approaches, spontaneous ventilation single-port thoracoscopy and conventional thoracoscopy, on T lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory factors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Fifty-eight patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery in the Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University from January 2020 to December 2021 were selected as the study subjects. All of them underwent standard lobectomy and lymph node dissection. Among them, 32 patients who underwent spontaneous ventilation single-port thoracoscopy were included in the study group, while 26 patients who underwent conventional thoracoscopy were included in the control group. The perioperative related indices, lung function, immune factor levels, and inflammatory factor levels were compared between the two groups. Results: In the study group, the perioperative incision length, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and number of lymph node dissections were 4.28 ± 2.01, 77.89 ± 12.02, 87.21 ± 16.11, and 20.69 ± 4.45, respectively. In the control group, the perioperative incision length, intraoperative blood loss, operation time, and number of lymph node dissections were 6.32 ± 2.45, 84.98 ± 16.98, 95.88 ± 14.89, and 21.45 ± 4.36, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the study group and the control group in the number of lymph node dissections and intraoperative blood loss; the lung function in the study group was significantly better than that in the control group; the levels of T cell subsets CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD16+CD56+ of the study group were 46.36 ± 5.87, 30.98 ± 4.12, 1.19 ± 0.23, and 17.41 ± 6.25, respectively, while those in the control group were 35.78 ± 4.12, 34.14 ± 3.87, 1.04 ± 0.24, and 12.45 ± 5.56, respectively; the levels of immunoglobulin IgG, IgM, and IgA of the study group were 10.45 ± 2.14, 1.21 ± 0.24, and 1.26 ± 0.25, respectively, while those of the control group were 8.78 ± 1.78, 1.06 ± 0.12, and 1.06 ± 0.26, respectively, with statistical differences; the levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? of the control group were 21.87 ± 4.26, 98.01 ± 9.58, 111.03 ± 9.96, and 123.05 ± 9.77, respectively, while those of the study group were 19.47 ± 3.89, 89.12 ± 8.96, 104.32 ± 9.12, and 112.98 ± 9.16, respectively, in which the comparison was statistically significant. Conclusion: In the surgical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, spontaneous ventilation single-port thoracoscopic surgery has several advantages, which include less trauma and bleeding. It reduces the impact of surgical trauma on the immune function of the body, improves the postoperative lung function and inflammatory stress of the body, as well as accelerates the recovery of patients. It is an alternative to open lung lobectomy for the treatment of lung cancer.
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