Objective: To analyze the expression and clinical significance of miRNA-495 in the peripheral blood of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Methods: Fifty-six patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 56 healthy controls were selected. Fasting venous blood was drawn and centrifuged, and the plasma was collected. The target miRNA was directly amplified and reverse transcribed into cDNA. The expression of plasma miR-495 was detected by qRT-PCR. Results: The expression level of miRNA-495 in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML [ND]) and relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML [RR]) was significantly lower than that in complete remission (AML [CR]) and normal control group (Control) (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between AML (ND) group and AML (RR) group (p > 0.05). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of miRNA-495 was 0.9503, the 95% confidence interval was 0.9113–0.9892 (p < 0.0001), the standard error was 0.020, the sensitivity and specificity were 91.1% and 92.9%, respectively, and the Jordan index was 0.857. There was no significant difference between the expression level of miRNA-495 and gender, age, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and platelet count (p > 0.05). However, it was found related to the proportion of primitive bone marrow cells in patients (p = 0.017). Conclusion: The decreased expression of plasma miR-495 in AML patients can be used as a new indicator for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML.
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