Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant gynecological tumors and has the second highest incidence of all malignancies in females. Chronic and persistent infection with High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. There is a distinct lack of methodology by which to determine whether cervical epithelial dysplasia is cancerous following HPV infection. HPV L1 capsid protein is a major structural protein of human papillomavirus (HPV)?and it is the main target of the local cellular immune response aiming to combat human papillomavirus after HPV infection within cervical cells. Greater understanding of HPV L1 capsid protein and its association with cervical cytology, histopathology, patient age and human papillomavirus viral load has the potential to contribute toward improved the improved diagnosis and management of cervical cancer, providing useful information for gynecological clinicians in the hope of improving patient treatment and quality of life. This article reviews the predictive utility of HPV L1 capsid protein for cervical lesions.