Structural Design and Analysis of Small Flapping Wing Aircraft Based on the Crank Slider Mechanism


Flapping wing aircraft
Structural design
Dynamic simulation




In this project, the miniaturization of the aircraft was realized under the premise of strong maneuverability, high concealability, and driving a certain load, and the flight mode and structural characteristics of birds were imitated. A small bionic flapping wing aircraft was built. The flapping of the wing was realized by the crank slider mechanism, and the sizes of each part were calculated according to the bionics formula. The wingspan was 360.37 mm, the body width was 22 mm, the body length was 300 mm, the wing area was 0.05 m2, the flapping amplitude was 71°. ADAMS software was used to simulate the dynamics of the designed aircraft, and the variation of flapping amplitude and angular velocity during the movement of the aircraft was obtained, which verified the feasibility of the mechanism. The prototype aircraft was made for flight test, and the designed bionic flapping wing aircraft achieved the expected effect. It provides a theoretical basis and data support for the design and manufacture of small flapping wing aircraft.


Rege A, 2015, Characterization of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics and Flight Dynamics Analysis Using Computational Methods. Dissertation & Theses-Gradworks, 5(8): 126–132.

Ruan L, Hou Y and Li S, et al., 2017, Design and Motion Analysis of Bionic Flapping Wing Flying Robot with Two degrees of Freedom. Machinery Design and Manufacture, 2017(6): 241–244.

Sun M, Xiong Y, 2005, Biomimetic Mechanics of Micro-Aircraft: Stability of Honeybee Hovering Flight. Acta Aeronautica et Astronautica Sinica, 26(4): 385–391.

Toon J, 2001, Flying on Mars. Georgia Tech Research Horizons, 19(1): 19–23.

Zhang Y, 2018, Current Research on the Small Bionic Flapping Wing Flying Robot Research Review. Journal of North China University of Technology, 121(02): 66–75.

Gao Y, Hou Y, Hua Z, et al., 2020, Design of Eagle Flapping Wing Aircraft and Realization of Multiple Flight Modes. Journal of Machine Design, 2020(1): 7.

Hou Y, Fang Z, Kong J, et al., 2008, Research Status and Key Technologies of Bionic Flapping Wing Flying Microrobot. Journal of Machine Design, 25(7): 5.

Pornsin-Sirirak TN, Tai YC, Ho CM, et al., 2001, Microbat: A Palm-Sized Electrically Powered Ornithopter. Proceedings of the NASA/JPL Workshop on Biomorphic Robotics.

Mueller TJ, 2001, Fixed and Flapping Wing Aerodynamics for Micro Air Vehicle Applications. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Virginia

Bionic Manta Ray Uses Festo Fluidic Muscles, n.d., viewed, July 17, 2020,

Xu Y, Zong G, Bi S, et al., 2009, Design and Analysis of Space Crank-Rocker Flapping Wing Mechanism. Journal of aerospace power, 24(1): 204–208.