Lunar surface additive manufacturing with lunar regolith is a key step in in-situ resource utilization. The powder spreading process is the key process, which has a major impact on the quality of the powder bed and the precision of molded parts. In this study, the discrete element method (DEM) was adopted to simulate the powder spreading process with a roller. The three powder bed quality indicators, including the molding layer offset, voidage fraction, and surface roughness, were established. Besides, the influence of the three process parameters, which are roller’s translational speed, rotational speed, and powder spreading layer thickness on the powder bed quality indicators was also analyzed. The results show that with the reduction of the powder spreading layer thickness and the increase of the rotational speed, the offset increased significantly; when the translational speed increased, the offset first increased and then decreased, which resulted in an extreme value; with the increase of the layer thickness and the decrease of the translational speed, the values for voidage fraction and surface roughness significantly reduced. The powder bed quality indicators were adopted as the optimization objective, and the multi-objective parameter optimization was carried out. The predicted optimal powder spreading parameters and powder bed quality indicators were then obtained. Moreover, the optimal values were then verified. This study can provide informative guidance for in-situ manufacturing at the moon in future deep space exploration missions.
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